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Kolkata - West Bengal
Kolkata, the bustling capital city of West Bengal, is the hub of Bengali culture in India. It was earlier known as Calcutta as it was pronounced since the British rule and has changed to Kolkata officially in 2001. It has derived the name from Kalikata, which is a village name in the area before the British arrival, means the land of Goddess “Kali”. Kolkata boasts of a rich cultural heritage, evident in its distinct cuisine, clothing, lifestyle, its literature and even architecture.

Kolkata is a cosmopolitan city where people, technology and ideas have blended together with the socio-political culture to give the city a new shape and hence it is the second largest city of India. The city is full of historical monuments and palaces and is therefore also called the “The City of Palaces”. Its glorious history dates back to 1690 when it was selected by the British for their trade settlements.

The place started evolving with the arrival of the British and that's when the British romance with Kolkata started. Almost a century later, the British had established their foothold in the city and Calcutta was declared the administrative capital of India in 1772.

In 1857, the Calcutta University was established here and Kolkata started evolving as a hub of fine arts and literature.The British defeated Siraj-ud-daullah (Nawab of Bengal) on the battle field of Plassey, and Calcutta became the capital of British India till 1911. Thereafter, the city continued to play a major role in the political affairs of India. Till 1947, the city was a venue for major political programmes and an important field for social reformation.

History :
Kolkata's history is intimately related to the British East India Company, which first arrived in 1690, and to British India, of which Calcutta became the capital in 1772. Job Charnock was widely known as the founder of Calcutta (There were 3 villages named Sutanuti, Govindapur & Kolkata.Later the village Kolkata became the city Kolkata.) but in recent years a number of Indian historians have disputed this claim, arguing that Kolkata occupies the site of an older Indian city, centered around the ancient Kali temple at Kalighat.

Whatever its origins,Kolkata flowered as the capital of British India during the nineteenth century, the heyday of the Raj. Calcutta University, the first modern Indian university was founded here in 1857.Kolkata became the center of Indian arts and literature, and the national movement for independence got its start here. However, with the transfer of the capital to Delhi in 1911, the pains of the partition of Bengal in 1947,a violent and bloody Maoist movement (the Naxalite movement) in the 1970s and many political betrayals which no other city experienced,Kolkata had become synonymous with urban decay and poverty, but reversal changes can be already seen.
Modern Kolkata :
Kolkata is the main business, commercial and financial hub of eastern India. Kolkata witnessed an economic decline from the late sixties till the late nineties. The city's economic fortunes turned the tide as the economic liberalization in India during the early nineties reached Kolkata during late nineties. Kolkata is a multicultural, cosmopolitan city. Apart from the diversity of India, there are also Europeans (including Germans, Armenians, and others) and other Asians (including Chinese, Sinhalese, and Tibetans).

Since 1977, a "Left Front" coalition of communist and Marxist parties has continuously ruled the state. This is reflected in street names and memorials in the city.
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